Bucharest Stock Exchange for 2021

We found 11 online brokers that are appropriate for Trading Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms.

Bucharest Stock Exchange Guide

Updated June 13, 2021

Bucharest Stock Exchange

The Bucharest stock exchange is not the only place where start-ups can obtain financial capital. Private placement markets are also popular, with many real estate companies going for capital during periods of economic downturn. Private placement is similar to the Bucharest stock exchange. It is used to provide start-ups with financial capital. However, instead of starting from scratch with little financial capital, private placement allows investors to choose from several real estate investments in Romania. These include both state-owned properties as well as those being operated by international property companies.

One of the ways that investors can predict the movement of shares is through the Bucharest stock exchange float. The float is the difference between the buy and sell price of any particular share. On average, shares will start to move in one direction for two months before reverting back to their initial price.

A good way of predicting the direction of the Bucharest stock exchange float is through the services of an investment broker. With the broker's advice, start-ups can obtain the financial capital they need to enter the financial capital market. The financial capital market usually consists of an aero market, which allows investors to obtain shares from start-ups for a fixed price, and the fixed-rate lending market, allowing investors to borrow financial capital.

Bucharest Stock Exchange Market Capitalization

Bucharest is the second most populated area in Romania after Transylvania. This region, together with its neighbouring regions of Moldava, Maramures and Sofia, forms Romania. Bucharest is one of the biggest industrial centres in eastern Europe. It is the centre of Romania's financial sector and a leading financial centre in the region. It houses the world's second-biggest gold mine and the world's second-largest steel factory.

The Bucharest Stock Exchange, also known as the Bucharest cipla, is the biggest stock market in Romania. The name Bucharest is derived from a combination of two Greek words which mean 'open road' and 'bridging the river'. The main business hub of the city is the metro that connects Bucharest to other parts of Romania and the rest of the east African region. The Bucharest stock exchange is characterized by its open-air terminal, colourful signage and relaxed atmosphere.

The main floor of the Bucharest Stock Exchange is covered with rows of shops selling almost everything. People in business and investors can buy and sell stocks here. There are two major floor signs which indicate the opening and closing times of each trading day. The main trade centres are located on the first and second levels of the bourse. The Bucharest Stock Exchange has four indoor and five outdoor markets.

The Bucharest Stock Exchange has minor trading floors which house smaller companies from the regions around the market. These companies offer shares on the Bucharest Stock Exchange at cheaper rates. There are also some banks that offer shares through these floors. The Bucharest Stock Exchange tries to improve its capitalization by offering many discount trading opportunities.

The Bucharest Stock Exchange also has an electronic quotation system that offers real-time stock exchange results. The system has been designed by a team of computer experts. The market's technical operations centre is divided into different departments such as quotation, order processing, market management and administration. In addition to providing affordable and regulated access to the stock exchange, the market has also created online trading facilities for its registered users. The online trading facility enables users to place their orders from anywhere in the world.

Through online banking, transactions can be made without the need for a broker. It helps investors to manage their portfolio by buying and selling shares of the selected companies. The fees levied by the Bucharest Stock Exchange are fixed and are regularly reviewed to ensure that they remain competitive. Through its extensive range of institutional clients, the exchange provides investors with low-cost investment options. Its capitalization and market stability have made it one of the most reputed stock markets worldwide.

Bucharest Stock Exchange Economy & Geography

The Bucharest Stock Exchange is one of the largest financial marketplaces in Romania. Over the past few years, it has grown considerably and has become one of the leading financial centres in Romania. The Bucharest Stock Exchange was established in 1992 and is one of the oldest stock exchanges in Europe. One of its unique features is that it does not operate over a clock but rather operates 24 hours a day. This helps to improve its flexibility and the ability for investors and traders to get involved with the market at any hour from anywhere in the world.

The Bucharest Stock Exchange follows a normal development pattern, with four main economic factors contributing to its growth: high tourism, agriculture, small and medium-scale manufacturing and engineering. The main international airport is in Constanta (Krenz), which is also the main seaport for Romania, other than Romania's capital, Bucharest. The city is served by international flights from various countries. Most of the international freight transport operators have their bases in Constanta and serve shipments to this city.

Another key factor behind the Bucharest Stock Exchange is the high level of foreign investment. Many multinational companies have located their manufacturing plants in Romania, which has led to a diversification of the Romanian economy. As a result, the Bucharest Stock Exchange has a fairly liberalized set of industry participants, allowing it to attract a wide range of foreign investors. Some of the main industries that attract investors are the textile, machinery and food processing industries.

Bucharest's position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia adds to its importance as an international economic, political and cultural centre. The country has an excellent mix of climates and environments, which contribute to its economy. Its climate includes dry and rainy summers and mild winters. The Bucharest Stock Exchange, therefore, is greatly influenced by the regional climatic conditions. In the past, when the country was under the rule of the communist regime, the stock market was closed to the outside world.

However, under the new government, all barriers have been removed, including the stock market, which has made the country more open to foreign investors. Foreign direct investments (FDI) have also contributed to the boost in the economy. This aspect of the Bucharest stock market has made it a sought after investment opportunity for many people in business. Some of the main business sectors that attract international investors include energy, postal, textiles, finance, banking, food processing, communications, and electronics.

We've collected thousands of datapoints and written a guide to help you find the best Bucharest Stock Exchange for you. We hope this guide helps you find a reputable broker that matches what you need. We list the what we think are the best Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms below.

Reputable Bucharest Stock Exchange Checklist

There are a number of important factors to consider when picking an online Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms trading brokerage.

Our team have listed brokers that match your criteria for you below. All brokerage data has been summarised into a comparison table. Scroll down.

Our brokerage comparison table below allows you to compare the below features for brokers offering Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms.

We compare these features to make it easier for you to make a more informed choice.

Top 15 Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms of 2021 compared

Here are the top Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms.

Compare Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms min deposits, regulation, headquarters, benefits, funding methods and fees side by side.

All brokers below are Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms. Learn more about what they offer below.

You can scroll left and right on the comparison table below to see more Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms that accept Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms clients

Broker eToro AvaTrade IC Markets XTB Pepperstone XM FP Markets Plus500 FXPrimus EasyMarkets SpreadEx
Rating
Regulation Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), Markets In Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID), Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) Central Bank of Ireland, Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC), Financial Services Authority (FSA), South African Financial Sector Conduct Authority (FSCA), Financial Stability Board (FSB), Abu Dhabi Global Markets (ADGM), Financial Regulatory Services Authority (FRSA), British Virgin Islands Financial Services Commission (BVI) Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC), Financial Services Authority (FSA), Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC) Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), FCA number FRN 522157, Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), CySEC Licence Number: 169/12, Comisión Nacional del Mercado de Valores, Komisja Nadzoru Finansowego, Belize International Financial Services Commission (IFSC) under license number IFSC/60/413/TS/19, Polish Securities and Exchange Commission (KPWiG) Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC), Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin), Dubai Financial Services Authority (DFSA), Capital Markets Authority of Kenya (CMA), Pepperstone Markets Limited is incorporated in The Bahamas (number 177174 B), Licensed by the Securities Commission of the Bahamas (SCB) number SIA-F217 International Financial Services Commission (IFSC), Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC), Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC) Plus500UK Ltd authorized & regulated by the FCA (#509909), Plus500CY Ltd authorized & regulated by CySEC (#250/14), Plus500AU Pty Ltd (ACN 153301681), ASIC in Australia AFSL #417727, FMA in New Zealand, FSP #486026 and Authorised Financial Services Provider in South Africa FSP #47546 Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), Markets In Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) Financial Conduct Authority (FCA)
Min Deposit 200 250 200 No minimum deposit 200 5 100 100 100 100 1
Funding
  • Bank transfer
  • Credit Card
  • Paypal
  • Bank transfer
  • Credit Card
  • Paypal
  • Bank transfer
  • Credit Card
  • Paypal
  • Bank transfer
  • Credit Card
  • Paypal
  • Bank transfer
  • Credit Card
  • Paypal
  • Bank transfer
  • Credit Card
  • Paypal
  • Bank transfer
  • Credit Card
  • Paypal
  • Bank transfer
  • Credit Card
  • Paypal
  • Bank transfer
  • Credit Card
  • Paypal
  • Bank transfer
  • Credit Card
  • Paypal
  • Bank transfer
  • Credit Card
  • Paypal
Used By 20,000,000+ 200,000+ 180,000+ 250,000+ 89,000+ 3,500,000+ 10,000+ 15,500+ 10,000+ 142,500+ 10,000+
Benefits
  • Offers STP
  • Low min deposit
  • Offers Negative Balance Protection
  • Allows scalping
  • Allows hedging
  • Low min deposit
  • Allows scalping
  • Allows hedging
  • Low min deposit
  • Offers Negative Balance Protection
  • Allows scalping
  • Allows hedging
  • Offers STP
  • Low min deposit
  • Offers Negative Balance Protection
  • Allows scalping
  • Allows hedging
  • Offers STP
  • Low min deposit
  • Offers Negative Balance Protection
  • Allows scalping
  • Allows hedging
  • Low min deposit
  • Offers Negative Balance Protection
  • Allows scalping
  • Allows hedging
  • Offers STP
  • Low min deposit
  • Offers Negative Balance Protection
  • Low min deposit
  • Offers Negative Balance Protection
  • Allows scalping
  • Allows hedging
  • Offers STP
  • Low min deposit
  • Allows scalping
  • Allows hedging
  • Low min deposit
  • Guaranteed stop loss
  • Offers Negative Balance Protection
  • Allows scalping
  • Allows hedging
  • Low min deposit
  • Guaranteed stop loss
Accounts
  • Demo account
  • Standard account
  • Islamic account
  • Demo account
  • Micro account
  • Mini account
  • Standard account
  • Islamic account
  • Demo account
  • Mini account
  • Standard account
  • Zero spread account
  • Raw Spread account
  • Islamic account
  • Pro account
  • Demo account
  • Micro account
  • Mini account
  • Standard account
  • Islamic account
  • Demo account
  • Mini account
  • Standard account
  • ECN account
  • Islamic account
  • Demo account
  • Micro account
  • Standard account
  • Zero spread account
  • Islamic account
  • Demo account
  • Mini account
  • Standard account
  • Zero spread account
  • ECN account
  • Managed account
  • Islamic account
  • Demo account
  • Standard account
  • Islamic account
  • Demo account
  • Micro account
  • Mini account
  • Standard account
  • ECN account
  • Managed account
  • Islamic account
  • Demo account
  • Micro account
  • Mini account
  • Standard account
  • Islamic account
  • Demo account
  • Standard account
Spreads
  • fixed spreads
  • variable spreads
  • fixed spreads
  • variable spreads
  • fixed spreads
  • variable spreads
  • fixed spreads
  • variable spreads
  • fixed spreads
  • variable spreads
  • fixed spreads
  • variable spreads
  • fixed spreads
  • variable spreads
  • fixed spreads
  • variable spreads
  • fixed spreads
  • variable spreads
  • fixed spreads
  • variable spreads
  • fixed spreads
  • variable spreads
Platforms Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps Web Trader, MT4, MT5, AvaTradeGo, AvaOptions, Mac, Mobile Apps, ZuluTrade, DupliTrade, MQL5 MT4, MT5, Mirror Trader, ZuluTrade, Web Trader, cTrader, Mac MT4, Mirror Trader, Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps MT4, MT5, Mac, ZuluTrade, Web Trader, cTrader, Tablet & Mobile apps MT4, MT5, Mac, Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps MT4, MT5, IRESS, Mac, Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps MT4, Mac, Mirror Trader, Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps MT4, Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps
Support
  • Live chat
  • Phone support
  • Email support
  • Live chat
  • Phone support
  • Email support
  • Live chat
  • Phone support
  • Email support
  • Live chat
  • Phone support
  • Email support
  • Live chat
  • Phone support
  • Email support
  • Live chat
  • Phone support
  • Email support
  • Live chat
  • Phone support
  • Email support
  • Live chat
  • Phone support
  • Email support
  • Live chat
  • Phone support
  • Email support
  • Live chat
  • Phone support
  • Email support
  • Live chat
  • Phone support
  • Email support
Learn More Sign Up with
etoro
Sign Up with
avatrade
Sign Up with
icmarkets
Sign Up with
xtb
Sign Up with
pepperstone
Sign Up with
xm
Sign Up with
fpmarkets
Sign Up with
plus500
Sign Up with
fxprimus
Sign Up with
easymarkets
Sign Up with
spreadex
Risk Warning 67% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. 72% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider Losses can exceed deposits 77% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money. CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 79.3% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money Your capital is at risk Losses can exceed deposits 72% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money. Losses can exceed deposits Your capital is at risk Losses can exceed deposits
Demo eToro
Demo
AvaTrade
Demo
IC Markets
Demo
XTB
Demo
Pepperstone
Demo
XM
Demo
FP Markets
Demo
Plus500
Demo
FXPrimus
Demo
easyMarkets
Demo
SpreadEx
Demo
Excluded Countries IR, KP, BE, CA, JP, SY, TR, IL, BY, AL, MD, MK, RS, GN, CD, SD, ZW, ET, GH, TZ, LY, UG, ZM, BW, RW, TN, SO, NA, TG, SL, LR, GM, DJ, CI, PK, BN, TW, WS, NP, SG, VI, TM, TJ, UZ, LK, TT, HT, MM, BT, MH, MV, KZ, GD, FJ, BB, BM, BS, AG, AI, AW, LB, SV, US, PY, HN, GT, PR, NI, VG, AN, BE, BR, KP, NZ, TR, US, CA, SG AF, GN, SL, BW, IR, SY, MM, IQ, TG, KH, LS, YE, CI , LR, ZW, CU, LY, TZ, CG, ML, BO, LR, NE, AO, GM, NG, AG, GH, KR, KG, GN, SN, NA US, IN, PK, BD, NG , ID, BE, AU BR, KR, IR, IQ, SY, JP, US US, CA, IL, KR, IR, MM, CU, SD, SY US, JP, NZ MY, BE, US, CA, CN, ID, PH, TG, NG, DO, MA, ZW, PR, TZ, TN, UG, BW, AO, AE AF, CI, CU, IQ, IR, LY, MM, KR, SD, PR, US, AU, SY, DZ, JP, EC. US US, TR

All Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms in more detail

You can compare Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms ratings, min deposits what the the broker offers, funding methods, platforms, spread types, customer support options, regulation and account types side by side.

We also have an indepth Top Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms for 2021 article further below. You can see it now by clicking here

We have listed top Bucharest Stock Exchange Investment Platforms below.

Bucharest Stock Exchange List

eToro
(4/5)
Min deposit : 200
eToro was established in 2007 and is used by over 20000000+ traders. 67% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. eToro offers Stocks, Commodities, Forex, CFDs, Social Trading, Indices, Cryptocurrency, Index Based Funds, Exchange Traded Funds (ETF). Cryptocurrency availability with eToro is subject to regulation. Buying and selling real cryptocurrency assets may not be available in your country through eToro. Please check the latest information made available on their website.

Funding methods

Bank transfer Credit Card Paypal

Platforms

Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps

Customer support

Live chat Phone support Email support

Account Types

Micro account Standard account Islamic account VIP account
Regulated by Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), Markets In Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID), Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC)
AvaTrade
(4/5)
Min deposit : 250
AvaTrade was established in 2006 and is used by over 200000+ traders. 72% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider AvaTrade offers Forex, CFDs, Spread Betting, Social Trading.

Funding methods

Bank transfer Credit Card Paypal

Platforms

Web Trader, MT4, MT5, AvaTradeGo, AvaOptions, Mac, Mobile Apps, ZuluTrade, DupliTrade, MQL5

Customer support

Live chat Phone support Email support

Account Types

Micro account Standard account Islamic account VIP account
Regulated by Central Bank of Ireland, Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC), Financial Services Authority (FSA), South African Financial Sector Conduct Authority (FSCA), Financial Stability Board (FSB), Abu Dhabi Global Markets (ADGM), Financial Regulatory Services Authority (FRSA), British Virgin Islands Financial Services Commission (BVI)
IC Markets
(4/5)
Min deposit : 200
IC Markets was established in 2007 and is used by over 180000+ traders. Losses can exceed deposits IC Markets offers Forex, CFDs, Spread Betting, Share dealing, Cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrency availability with IC Markets is subject to regulation.

Funding methods

Bank transfer Credit Card Paypal

Platforms

MT4, MT5, Mirror Trader, ZuluTrade, Web Trader, cTrader, Mac

Customer support

Live chat Phone support Email support

Account Types

Micro account Standard account Islamic account VIP account
Regulated by Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC), Financial Services Authority (FSA), Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC)
XTB
(4/5)
Min deposit : 0
XTB was established in 2002 and is used by over 250000+ traders. 77% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money. XTB offers Forex, CFDs, Cryptocurrency. Cryptocurrency availability with XTB is subject to regulation.

Funding methods

Bank transfer Credit Card Paypal

Platforms

MT4, Mirror Trader, Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps

Customer support

Live chat Phone support Email support

Account Types

Micro account Standard account Islamic account VIP account
Regulated by Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), FCA number FRN 522157, Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), CySEC Licence Number: 169/12, Comisión Nacional del Mercado de Valores, Komisja Nadzoru Finansowego, Belize International Financial Services Commission (IFSC) under license number IFSC/60/413/TS/19, Polish Securities and Exchange Commission (KPWiG)
Pepperstone
(4/5)
Min deposit : 200
Pepperstone was established in 2010 and is used by over 89000+ traders. CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 79.3% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money Pepperstone offers Forex, CFDs, Social Trading.

Funding methods

Bank transfer Credit Card Paypal

Platforms

MT4, MT5, Mac, ZuluTrade, Web Trader, cTrader, Tablet & Mobile apps

Customer support

Live chat Phone support Email support

Account Types

Micro account Standard account Islamic account VIP account
Regulated by Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC), Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin), Dubai Financial Services Authority (DFSA), Capital Markets Authority of Kenya (CMA), Pepperstone Markets Limited is incorporated in The Bahamas (number 177174 B), Licensed by the Securities Commission of the Bahamas (SCB) number SIA-F217
XM
(4/5)
Min deposit : 5
XM was established in 2009 and is used by over 3500000+ traders. Your capital is at risk XM offers Forex, CFDs.

Funding methods

Bank transfer Credit Card Paypal

Platforms

MT4, MT5, Mac, Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps

Customer support

Live chat Phone support Email support

Account Types

Micro account Standard account Islamic account VIP account
Regulated by International Financial Services Commission (IFSC), Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC)
FP Markets
(4/5)
Min deposit : 100
FP Markets was established in 2005 and is used by over 10000+ traders. Losses can exceed deposits FP Markets offers Forex, CFDs.

Funding methods

Bank transfer Credit Card Paypal

Platforms

MT4, MT5, IRESS, Mac, Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps

Customer support

Live chat Phone support Email support

Account Types

Micro account Standard account Islamic account VIP account
Regulated by Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC), Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC)
Plus500
(4/5)
Min deposit : 100
Plus500 was established in 2008 and is used by over 15500+ traders. 72% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money. Plus500 offers CFDs.


Plus500 offer a 100% Free and Unlimited Demo account No Deposit fees/Commissions No hidden fees Competitive fees Tight Spreads

Funding methods

Bank transfer Credit Card Paypal

Platforms

Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps

Customer support

Live chat Phone support Email support

Account Types

Micro account Standard account Islamic account VIP account
Regulated by Plus500UK Ltd authorized & regulated by the FCA (#509909), Plus500CY Ltd authorized & regulated by CySEC (#250/14), Plus500AU Pty Ltd (ACN 153301681), ASIC in Australia AFSL #417727, FMA in New Zealand, FSP #486026 and Authorised Financial Services Provider in South Africa FSP #47546
FXPrimus
(4/5)
Min deposit : 100
FXPrimus was established in 2009 and is used by over 10000+ traders. Losses can exceed deposits FXPrimus offers Forex, Social Trading.

Funding methods

Bank transfer Credit Card Paypal

Platforms

MT4, Mac, Mirror Trader, Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps

Customer support

Live chat Phone support Email support

Account Types

Micro account Standard account Islamic account VIP account
Regulated by Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), Markets In Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID)
EasyMarkets
(4/5)
Min deposit : 100
easyMarkets was established in 2001 and is used by over 142500+ traders. Your capital is at risk easyMarkets offers CFD, Forex, Commodities, Indices, Shares, Crypto. Cryptocurrency availability with easyMarkets is subject to regulation.

Funding methods

Bank transfer Credit Card Paypal

Platforms

MT4, Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps

Customer support

Live chat Phone support Email support

Account Types

Micro account Standard account Islamic account VIP account
Regulated by Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (CySEC), Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC)
SpreadEx
(4/5)
Min deposit : 1
SpreadEx was established in 1999 and is used by over 10000+ traders. Losses can exceed deposits SpreadEx offers Forex, CFDs, and spread betting.

Funding methods

Bank transfer Credit Card Paypal

Platforms

Web Trader, Tablet & Mobile apps

Customer support

Live chat Phone support Email support

Account Types

Micro account Standard account Islamic account VIP account
Regulated by Financial Conduct Authority (FCA)